Sachet of 5 liters or about 2.8 kg of shiitake mycelium also called mushroom white. With a 5-liter bag of shiitake mycelium, you can inoculate about 120 kilos of substrate, i.e. a production of shiitake that should be between 20 and 25 kg.
SHIITAKE OF MYCELIUM - (LENTINULA EDODES)
RESTING SHIITAKE MYCELIUM (Lentinula edodes) WILL DEVELOP WHEN CONDITIONS ARE ADEQUATE.
PROFESSIONAL QUALITY SHIITAKE MYCELIUM MADE IN OPTIMUM ASEPTIC CONDITIONS.
For a quality production, the rate of inoculation of shiitake should be about 6% on sterilized substrate. Therefore, with a 5 liter bag of white shiitake (about 2.8 kilos) you can inoculate about 45 kilos of sterilized substrate.
* You can therefore expect, depending on the growing conditions, a harvest of oyster mushrooms which should be between 18 and 22 kgs.
Because shiitake mycelium is a fragile product, you must keep it cool at 2 ° upon receipt. The Mondial Relay delivery option is not suitable for this product.
SHIITAKE SUBSTRATE PREPARATION
- And bran are the most common ingredients.
Sawdust usually comes from oak (Quercus) or birch (Betula) and often from alder (Alnus) or beech (Fagus).
The use of sawdust from conifers or other hardwoods is not recommended.
The percentage of straw can vary between 50 and 85% but the recipes vary considerably depending on the substrate manufacturers who keep their secret jealously.
A mixture of: 85% straw and 15% sawdust is commonly used. If the bark percentage is too high, it can have a negative effect on the growth of the mycelium. Substrate manufacturers avoid using raw ingredients that have been chemically treated.
Straw substrates are often enriched with agricultural waste, i.e. corn cobs, bran and may also contain gypsum and trace elements. The Shiitake substrate should be drier than the Pleurotus substrate, so it is important to check the humidity of the raw ingredients.
Preparation of substrates:
This involves a homogeneous mixture of straw (which is often crushed into 3-5 cm pieces), sawdust and other dry ingredients.
Pasteurization or Sterilization:
There are two main methods for treating the substrate:
This method of preparing the substrate is very common and economical.
Using a 65 ° C treatment for 18 hours will kill all insects and other competitors. The steam treatment carried out in a tunnel allows a very homogeneous temperature distribution. The duration of pasteurization depends on the temperature. It is generally from 4 to 6 pm.
If pasteurization is not suitable and especially if the pasteurization temperatures are too high, the substrate is conducive to the development of Trichoderma and other competing molds.
This is less common because it requires equipment that allows substrate sterilization temperatures of 120 ° C for at least 50 minutes. Sterilization produces an ideal medium for the immediate invasion of the shiitake mycelium.
All composts are cooled (with cold air) before larding at 25 ° C
In larding, the substrate generally has the following characteristics:
- Total nitrogen: 1%
- PH: 6-7
- Relative humidity: 72%
To ensure rapid flooding, it is advisable to use substrate larding rates of 6 – 7% by weight.
When it comes to sterilized substrates, it is important to inoculate them under aseptic conditions in order to avoid contamination.
Iarding takes place when the temperature reaches 25 ° C, and in general, the inoculated substrate is put into 15 kg plastic bags, sealed and pressed to form a block. The bags are usually placed on shelves and incubated for 4 – 6 weeks.
The carpophores are usually deep brown.
This strain adapts easily to different conditions and combines good yield and good medium brown to dark brown quality using slightly brown cultivation techniques. Length 3 to 10 cm. Diameter 1 to 2 cm.
Sometimes bulbous tip
Well rounded when young, the cap becomes flat when ripe
Substrate temperatures may rise up to 30 ° C during incubation, but they should not exceed this temperature. Make sure that the substrate does not heat up. The temperature difference between the air and the substrate can reach 12 ° C.
With cultivation temperatures of 18 °, the first mushrooms are obtained 6 weeks after larding. Cultivation cycles are longer during the winter when temperatures are lower. When you remove the plastic early, the mushrooms get bigger.
The first flight is an important part of the harvest
It is very appreciated on the fresh markets thanks to its excellent behavior.
SHIITAKE STRAINS CULTURE TECHNIQUES
The optimum incubation temperatures in the substrate are from 20 – 25 ° C. It is very important to control the temperature in the middle of the blocks and not just the air temperature because the mycelium generates considerable heat during the incubation phase when the mycelium degrades lignin and cellulose. Shiitake substrates tend to heat up more than Pleurotus substrates.
The optimum air temperature is 18 – 20 ° C but the temperature of the substrate should not exceed 25 ° C during the growth phase.
The optimum relative humidity is 80 – 85%. It is necessary that there is sufficient oxygen to facilitate the degradation of lignin.
The mycelium must invade the substrate quickly and evenly in order to prevent the growth and development of competing molds.
At the end of incubation, a stroma generally develops over the entire surface of the substrate; over time, it eventually turns brown.
Incubation lasts 4 – 6 weeks depending on weather conditions and strain. A 4 week incubation usually produces fewer mushrooms but they are larger while a 6 week incubation usually produces a dense flock of medium sized mushrooms.
Start of harvest
When the blocks are completely overgrown, the plastic will need to be removed to provide enough oxygen for the growing fungi.
The optimum air temperature is 14 – 19 ° C and the relative humidity 90 – 95
The CO2 content should be maintained at 0.05 ° / 0 (500 ppm)
Shiitake require less light than Oyster mushrooms. It takes about 100 lux for 12 hours a day. Many growers use less light for economic reasons with little adverse effect.
The first flight can be expected 7 – 9 weeks after larding depending on the strain. She is generally very strong.
After the first set some growers allow the substrate to dry out for 2 weeks until the temperature reaches 22 – 25 ° C.
Late flights will appear successively over time but they can be produced by the intervention of shock to try to anticipate the dates of fruiting. Few growers use thermal or mechanical shocks as they often cause the development of Trichoderma and deformed fungi. Growers generally expect the development of Shiitake to evolve naturally over time.
You can expect a return of 10 – 15% in 5 – 6 months.
After harvesting, shiitake keeps very well for 14 days.